Saying the unsayable about Hispanics

As is often the case with my brain, I need to mull over things sometimes to decide what I think about them. Such is the case with Jason Richwine, the Heritage Foundation scholar who was driven out when it was discovered that his thesis (which passed inspection at Harvard) reached the following conclusions:

So what is actually in the dissertation? The dissertation shows that recent immigrants score lower than U.S.-born whites on many different types of IQ tests. Using statistical analysis, it suggests that the test-score differential is due primarily to a real cognitive gap rather than to culture or language bias. It analyzes how this cognitive gap could affect socioeconomic assimilation, and it concludes by exploring how IQ selection might be incorporated, as one factor among many, into immigration policy.

I have a few anecdotes plus a theory.

1.  Back in the late 1980s, before political correctness wrapped its smothering embrace around free speech, I ran into old family friends whom I hadn’t seen in years.  They were a Hispanic couple in their 60s, and very wealthy.  What were they doing with themselves since they retired, I asked.  Retired!?  No way.  They had founded an outreach program to work with poor Hispanic families.  Their specific focus was school drop-out rates.  The problem, they told me, was that immigrant Hispanic families resented that their children had to go to school.  They came from an agrarian society and saw only backbreaking labor as the path to survival.  While the news was talking about the gang culture turning Hispanics away from education, this couple told me that the problem was the parents.

2.  In the mid-1980s, one of the girls at my law school informed us that she was the first woman in her family, not only to go to college, but to go on to graduate school  Her Hispanic family was not proud of her, considering that she was a fool for wasting her time instead of getting a clerical job, getting married, and having babies.

3.  In the early 1980s, I met a nice gal at Berkeley.  She considered going to Berkeley a major triumph because her Hispanic family had done everything possible to stop her.  Education, they said, was a waste of time.  With Berkeley, they might have been right, of course, but having the degree alone definitely gave her probably higher life-time earnings than her siblings.

My takeaway:  American Hispanic culture was highly anti-intellectual.  Not everyone, of course, but the majority of immigrant parents worked ferociously hard as physical laborers and saw that as the only way to get ahead.  Education was a time waster. Kids who went to school were not contributing to the family welfare and needed to be made to see that they should work in Dad’s autobody shop or Uncle’s gardening business.  In this way, Hispanic culture was very different from the Jewish and Asian culture surrounding my youth, which was completely focused on educational achievement.

So my thought has always been this one:  If your culture is distinguished by a pervasive anti-intellectualism, will that fact reveal itself in your academic performances and tests?  I’ve always assumed the answer is “yes.”  If you think something is a stupid waste of time, you’ll almost certainly do badly.  I think the IQ test results reflect this fact.  They measure a specific culture — and not a culture of poverty as the Left says, or a culture of pervasive discrimination against Hispanics, as the Left also says, but an agrarian culture that both consciously and unconsciously can’t be bothered.

Put another way, observing an objective trend on IQ tests is not wrong or racist.  It’s a fact.  Richwine makes that point too:

Why did I discuss differences between Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites at all? Because the largest portion of the post-1965 immigration wave has come from Latin America. Studies of Hispanic IQ are naturally useful in estimating overall immigrant IQ and its intergenerational transmission.

That last point bears elaborating: There is absolutely no racial or ethnic agenda in my dissertation. Nothing in it suggests that any groups are “inferior” to any others, nor is there any call to base immigration policy on ethnicity. In fact, I argue for individual IQ selection as a way to identify bright people who do not have access to a university education in their home countries.

We can pretend that nothing is going on, consigning further generations of Hispanic Americans to manual labor, even as Asian or other immigrant groups that value education move ahead of them.  Or we can acknowledge the need to convince legal Hispanic immigrants that, in an information-rich age, the one who cracks the books is the one who gets ahead.


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  • jj

    Are further generations of Hispanic Americans being “consigned” to manual labor, or is everyone else just recognizing that this is what they want to do, and getting out of the way?  Apparently it makes them happy.  It allows them to feel (and be) productive at something, and they can do it right now instead of postponing functionality for years while they study.  As they evidently have little interest in the dynamics of an asteroid or what’s killing the bees, it’s difficult to see this as a wholly bad thing.  Education is available for those who want it, as your own experience proves.  If most of them don’t want it I decline to apportion, or accept, any species of anything resembling “blame” for that.
    Some of this is, I suppose, my own bias about higher education.  Looking around the society it’s hard to see the value of what we’ve been pushing for the last fifty years.  Most of us are “educated” (if that’s what that is) far beyond any actual need we might have.  I am myself educated to – and well past – the point of lunacy, as you know, but I was never compelled to be so.  I was gratifying my own curiosity, and I never deluded myself that I was engaged in anything beyond that.  I worked for an organization that believed powerfully in extraneous education, and would endlessly subsidize it, so I took advantage of that.  (There were people who could be found in a classroom somewhere in the greater NY area every evening after work for the entirety of a thirty year career.)
    But I wonder if we haven’t somewhat overdone the entire higher education thing.  We’re at the point in this society where we expect very nearly everybody to have gone to college.  It’s a reflex.  You don’t think about it: you just do it.  I wonder why.  One way of looking at this is to ask: how many astrophysicists do we need?  Another way of looking at it is to ask: are we happier and is society a better place because the motorman driving the subway in which we’re riding can recite whole sections of Beowulf?   A third question is: is the motorman himself happier and more fulfilled because he can do that?  Does it add anything to his experience of life here on Erf?
    The answer to all the above is: I have no idea.  But I guess it’s nice to know, as you thread through a traffic jam that features lots of guys standing around in yellow and orange vests, that they’re all reciting classic literature to themselves, a la Fahrenheit 451.  Or that the guy writing in a notebook while he waits to drive his bulldozer forward is working out a new formula for doubling the mileage of diesel engines.  Or that the DEA moron swinging the portable pile-driver against some suspect’s door while simultaneously yelling “Kopz!” at the top of his lungs isn’t a moron, but is realizing – as he waits for the signal to break down the door –  that he has arrived at the perfect understanding and most cogent explanation yet of Sonnet 47, which he’ll organize and write down as soon as they arrest this guy.
    I often wonder if we actually need subway motormen, heavy equipment operators, cops, firemen, mail carriers, etc. who can discourse with each other in Middle English at lunch.  Do we?  Really?  I think the penchant, which is now almost the “requirement” for everybody under the sun to have sat through college is kind of silly.  It’s so entirely irrelevant to so many of us, adding nothing at all to our lives in any real sense.  Plus the fact that plonking all these people into college who end up directing traffic, building cabinets, harvesting potatoes etc. probably has massively devalued the worth of a degree.  As long as the opportunity’s there for the Hispanic population – or anybody else – to do it if they really want to, which it seems to be, then I confess I don’t see the problem. 

  • Charles Martel

    I grew up in a Los Angeles neighborhood, El Sereno, that was half Anglo and half Mexican. Many of my friends as a kid were Mexican, and I learned my first few words of Spanish serving as an altar boy at a heavily Mexican Catholic church.
    My individual experiences with Mexicans do not make me an expert on their culture, but I still was able to form what I think is a fairly accurate notion about it over the years. As Book says, the culture is much more attuned to manual labor than it is to scholarly pursuits. As I learned more about Mexican history, I wondered at times if the peasant Mexican attitude of embracing hard work, besides being a necessity, was also a repudiation of the notorious aristocratic Spanish and Mediterranean disdain for work with one’s hands. Perhaps the lack of fondness for higher education is an unconscious desire to avoid becoming an arrogant parasite, which seems to be the fate of students educated in European and Third-World academies.
    Whatever the motivation, I realized that in general Mexican culture does not value education. As a former leftist I remember dealing often with radicalized Mexican Americans who would run around proclaiming education’s almost sacred status among Mexicans and how their thirst for learning was being thwarted by racist Anglos. Even in my most hapless Marxian delusions, I knew that was a lie. I could count on one hand the Mexican families I came to know in El Sereno who had pushed their children to achieve high marks in school and head on to college. (El Sereno was a lower middle-class neighborhood, so while college may have seemed very unlikely, it was not an impossibility.)
    In the 60s, the window opened a little. By the time I reached high school, there were many Mexican kids who were good students and aspired to college. I think that that was a result of their parents and them having become culturally more assimilated and better understanding the possibilities that American life opened up to them. You have to keep in mind that these were not immigrants, but the descendants of the relatively small number of Mexicans that had been on hand in California when the state was conquered by the Americans.
    So many of these kids went on to mid-level professions, such as teaching. Unfortunately, they soon faced twin catastrophes—the beginning of the degeneration of the educational system via assaults from the left and the opening of the borders to unchecked illegal immigration. While the coin of education was being debased as its content became dumbed down and politicized, native Mexican Americans found themselves overwhelmed numerically and culturally by hard working ignoramuses.
    Even as “everybody must attend college” became the mantra, most Mexican kids, native or illegal, became the recipients of worthless “educations” built on grievance and group think. On the surface there had been enormous progress:“¡Nuestros niños asisten al colegio!” (“Our kids are going to college!”). But the sad fact is that those kids had simply been led out to a modern version of the lettuce fields and auto body shops, consigned to work at tasks that would rarely advance them economically, let alone intellectually.
    If we insist on welcoming (legal) Latino immigrants, we should insist that they demonstrate higher-order thinking skills, ambition, and a sympathy for the distinctive elements in American culture that have made the United States a great nation. It should be stipulated that any such immigrant who later enters a Hispanic Studies program or joins an Anglo-hating Latinos-only society will be escorted to the southern border and not so gently shoved across the line.

  • MacG

    Culture is a funny thing. I do not think there ia a Mexican culture perse when it comes to the emigrants.  What there is though those that are coming are laborers in general as it is not the college educated from Mexico City that are neeking across the border.  So his sample may weighted a bit.
    What I have seen in the canal is some trying to make it.  One I know has graduated from Dominican College while another is studying hard to go to college while facing pressure from her peers about carrying her books home.  That one, she related to me her experience about a school that was predominately white (as Marin is), and when the Hispanic kids came that did not know English the teachers would have to slow the class down and the teachers then would speak Spanish to those kids.  Well it was not long before the whites moved out that school and it became a Hispanic school.  She was lamenting that the kids were being short sighted for not leaning English and the school for the bilingual approach.  So I guess that supports his thesis but the sample is weighted.  
    This seems a similar internal racial pressure against black kids doing well in school and “actin all white”

  • Bookworm

    MacG, that is a fascinating point — and it goes to the bit about whether a nation gets to select its immigrants or have its immigrants forced upon it. 

    If the US wasn’t already inundated by impoverished laborers from Mexico, perhaps it could make more of a push for middle class Mexicans, thereby providing a more balanced cultural mix.

    Indeed, all of you have made excellent points, proving that the mere existence of data is not a basis either for jumping to a single conclusion or for destroying the career of the man who assembled that same data.

  • Ymarsakar

    What people should not ignore is that Mexican migrant laborers are treated as sex slaves, physical labor slaves, and everything in between when they were being shipped to and from the US.
    The Left keeps quiet about that because they get a cut of the profits. Mexico gets an even bigger share.
    What’s the rest of the US’s excuse?

  • Michael Adams

          Well, one really unfortunate statistic is that second-generation Mexicans have a higher dysfunctional rate than their parents, as measured by unwed pregnancy, poverty, etc.  The second generation is poorer than the first, which has happened to no other immigrant group in America, before now. Most people blame the soft American life, television, lack of supervision by their over-worked elders, and the lack of a family super structure, grandparents, aunts and uncles, to reinforce the peasant work ethic of their homeland. Well, maybe.
          However, when my wife was an attempted teacher at two schools in Austin, in ESL, no less, she found the kids rather hostile. One reason, that she spotted early in the game, is that,  in Mexico, free education ends after sixth grade. Now, Spanish is very phonetic, so six years in Mexican school ought to equal about eight in el Norte. It is not.  People in other parts of Latin America assume that the inferior education is intended to keep people more easily controlled. The teachers are often snob rich kids from the cities, doing their socialist year of National Service. They show up when they feel like it. The curriculum is written for kids assumed to be pretty dumb. The sort of introduction to the sciences that we got in elementary school is just not there, so for example, they more often describe temperature in rather poetic terms, rather than degrees, as Europeans once did, before the early fifteenth century, when thermometers were invented. When those kids come here, they want to be out of school after sixth grade, as they would be, back in Mexico.  They are embarrassed to be reading material written for lower grade levels. Some of the families have great ambition for the kids, other families wonder when they are going to quit school and get to work.  I have heard more than one Mexican disparage work that has no hoe in it. It’s just not “real” work. I have worked with many Mexican immigrant families, and many are, as I said, very ambitious. Others are not.
    As for our  Black citizens, they, along with poorer Whites, are still suffering from the Protective Tariff, which was designed to produce economic disparity between Industrial North and Agrarian South, to promote the growth of “infant industries.” It might have been a really peachy idea.  It might have been necessary. However, the shortage of cash that it produced in the South renewed slavery, which was waning in South as well as North.  When slavery was eventually abolished, it was instantly replaced by share-cropping, because there was still no cash to pay a labor force.
    The Protective Tariff also did one other thing. In the Post Bellum South, a man might make a fairly good living as a farmer, at least in a good year. A woman, on the other hand, had great economic value, if she drew a salary, usually as a school teacher.  That cash meant that, in a bad year, the taxes, and the interest on the crop loan, could be paid. In a good year, the family bought a bit of land of their own, or, if they were already freeholders, better farm implements. So, the boys worked the land, and the girls went to teachers’ college. This idea that studying is for girls, or for ‘sissies,’ was prevalent among rural Whites when I was in school. Town boys, like my grandfather,  went to college, as a matter of course. Country boys did not, and resented us town boys whom the teacher favored, because we knew our lessons. This rural disdain for education, shared for seemingly unrelated reasons by our Mexican immigrants, if not our native-born Latinos, is, in both countries,  the result of  the thinking of our governmental lords and masters, It persists to this day, even while the l’s and m’s wring hands  and pontificate over what ails those, cough, whisper, inferiors. The statists can not get their heads around the fact that economic policy has very, very  far-reaching consequences.

  • Charles Martel

    MacG, a friend of mine taught middle school in San Rafael about four or five years ago. She’d gotten the bug to teach, so went to Dominican to qualify for a certificate. She later landed a job at a school near Albert Park to teach English to 12 and 13-year-old Latino kids.
    It was a disaster. My friend was a hardworking, sympathetic person who quickly got burned out trying to work with kids who simply refused to learn. Parents did not show up to Open House, and never responded to earnest queries or letters sent home about their kids. The boys, who delighted in teasing and baiting the girls, simply refused to do the work. No matter how much she cajoled, manipulated, or pleaded, the class was not interested in what she had to teach.
    She lasted a year, and later estimated that she had spent 70 percent of her time trying to impose discipline and order. With the exception of a few kids, no learning took place and nothing got done.
    The irony is that my friend is a typical Marin progressive, wed to the ridiculous memes that guide liberal life hereabouts. When I pointed out to her that she was avoiding the obvious, that she was dealing with a very unsophisticated culture contemptuous of education, she just reflexively shook her head. No, that couldn’t be! To accept my assertion would mean that some cultures are inferior to others. When I proposed this simple thought test, she had no answer: Are you saying then that the children’s hatred of learning is attributable to racism and negligence by a concerned school district that committed its vast resources and sent a motivated, politically liberal teacher to teach them?

  • Charles Martel

    Mike Adams, as usual, you enlighten a discussion with some great points.

  • Michael Adams

    Thanks, Hammer.

  • Ymarsakar

    Martel, I would have mentioned that Hispanic males would be far more interested in the study of social violence, power patterns, and martial arts. All the things I picked up, after I graduated high school.
    It is not particularly learning that is the issue. It is the fact that some people don’t like being trained into slaves by the Left, to do the academic thinking required of zealots and fanatics. In a sense, stupid people are more resistant to evil ideas than smart people. They don’t have to self rationalize or un self deceive themselves, they can go with the truth of their gut and emotions on day 1. Rationalization and excuse making is only easy for those with a sufficient IQ to do the thinking, and the time of course.
    In a culture that values strength, authority, and ability, the Left’s concept that only your brain matters, is grating on an instinctual level. Especially when they speak of “loyalty to the Leftist cause” as well.
    When the kids cannot defeat their teacher, authority is created. When the kids think their teacher is weak, they have no duty or need to obey. Even the spineless Leftist journalist clique understood this when they interviewed Arafat and Saddam. Don’t ask questions they told you not to. Or else.

  • Gringo

    #6 Michael Adams
    Well, one really unfortunate statistic is that second-generation Mexicans have a higher dysfunctional rate than their parents, as measured by unwed pregnancy, poverty, etc.
    In my years as a substitute teacher,  of  the three groups, 1)poor blacks, 2) poor Hispanics of parents born here, 3) poor Hispanics of parents  born south of the border, I much preferred  poor Hispanics of  parents born south of the border. They were much more interested in learning, and much more respectful  towards teachers. Someone told me that in Mexico, teachers will beat their students;   such students appreciated being taught in the  US because they knew they wouldn’t be subjected to such treatment.
    Regarding second- third generation etc. being more recalcitrant students- I would agree.  I had a freshman math student who wanted nothing more than to leave school and work.  Which he did as soon as he turned 16. His English was better than his Spanish. [Some 2nd-3rd generation Hispanic students, when I spoke Spanish to them, said I “spoke Chinese(habla Chino)” which meant that my Spanish was too fast for them.] His family was not poor- his aunt and uncle owned a restaurant. Pretty good food.
    However, when my wife was an attempted teacher at two schools in Austin, in ESL, no less, she found the kids rather hostile. One reason, that she spotted early in the game, is that,  in Mexico, free education ends after sixth grade. Now, Spanish is very phonetic, so six years in Mexican school ought to equal about eight in el Norte. It is not.
    DO NOT make the assumption that a student in  a US school  who has come  from south of the border has been to  school all the time before coming to the US.  From my substitute teaching days,  I recall a fourth grade student in an ESL class who was behind the rest of the  class, though he was trying. I said nothing, but I thought to myself that the poor guy was somewhat mentally retarded. I  taught the class a year later. The student was up to par with the rest of the class. What makes this even more amazing was that the year before the class was taught in Spanish, but by fifth grade  the class was being taught in English. I found out that the kid had come to the US at age 8  without any previous education, and was placed in 3rd grade. By working very hard, he had caught up by fifth grade.  I can give other examples.
    [Re the so-called  great educational system in Cuba, I recall a first grader recently arrived from Cuba who was behind the rest of the class on arithmetic skills. Doesn’t say much for the Cuban educational system. But he was making pretty good progress in catching up.]
    They are embarrassed to be reading material written for lower grade levels.
    I spent a disproportionate time as s substitute teacher  in ESL/bilingual classes due to my proficiency in Spanish [I later passed the certification exams for teaching Spanish without having had a Spanish course in college.]  The  ESL/bilingual students I had problems with were middle school aged and almost all  from El Salvador. Perhaps due to the civil war there, many hadn’t  gone to school  before coming to the US.  And they were embarrassed to be 13 years old and looking at material for first or second graders.
    In general, Texas has had better experience with Hispanic immigrants- legal or not- than California. One reason is the dysfunctional leftist culture predominating in California. Another reason I have read has to do with the origin of those Hispanics. Hispanics who end up in Texas tend to be from Northern Mexico, which is more advanced than the rest of Mexico. By contrast, Hispanics who end up in California tend to be from Southern Mexico and Central America, which is not as advanced as Northern Mexico.
    [My next door neighbor is from Mexico. Moving on up- her daughter recently graduated from a sub-Ivy university in the Northeast, in the sciences. OTOH, her 20 year old son is a bit of a slacker. One time, my neighbor was talking to me about how she needed to keep hustling/working hard etc. I asked her, are you from Monterrey? Yes, came the answer.
    In Mexico, people from Monterrey have the reputation for being tight-fisted, very hard workers, entrepreneurial. She fit the stereotype!]

  • MacG

    Martel, I graduated that school of which you speak way before ESL was in the lexicon.  It was more SSL along with German and French. When I started the class they teaching using words like verbs and nouns to teach Spanish so they lost me because I did not do well in English to start with.  Mom actually let me quit.  In hindsight too bad for me now I cannot understand half of the chatter in my neighborhood. The tone comes through pretty good though :)
    Boys will be boys and with no bull elephant to set them straight or scare them straight they will mess around.  An acquaintance of mine is a teacher at a local High School.  I asked him how the students treat him.  He said no problem “Because for the first two weeks I am an asshole. I don’t play their games. ‘Can I go to the bathroom?’ ‘No.’ Can I..’ ‘No.’ after two weeks of that they get the message.”
    Your friends real conundrum may have been the choice between the kids just did not want to learn and her low self-esteem she really did fail those kids, I did not think I was THAT bad but it must be so – can’t possibly be them, it’s me.

  • Michael Adams

    Gringo, many of your observations correspond to mine and my wife’s.  Some differ.  The Northern Mexico/Southern Mexico thing does not always work. Definitely, people from Monterrey are borges, (bourgeois) This is so true that we do not see many of them in Austin.  They are doing fine in Monterrey. Most immigrants in Austin are from San Luis Potosi and Guanajuato. We don’t see all that many vatos from Chihuahua or Tamaulipas, because there is water there, for very productive agriculture and there is other business, much of it border related. Many of the people we’ve known who taught elementary school age kids from Mexico reported that they were very sweet and well-behaved. Middle school is a zoo, regardless of race creed or national origin. High school was where she really encountered the clash of cultures.
    As for your neighbor from Monterrey, FTL’s are  pretty well distributed across ethnic lines, as many of my son’s classmates demonstrate. When we encounter their parents, they tell of renting an apartment and moving Sonny’s stuff in, handing him the key to  his new home when he comes to their house and finds the locks changed. Did mention that my twenty eight year old son is a college graduate, who paid his own way, and is married, gainfully employed, debt free except for part of his mortgage, father of three fabulous children, a founding member of his church congregation and Superintendent of a Sunday School department?  Did I mention it yet, today?
    I’d say that your description of second and third generation students reflects some of what I was describing. The immigrant generation wants to Work Hard and Get Ahead. The avenues that the first generation knows  for that ambition  do not serve so well for the children and grand children. A very close parallel are Black people who move  from the rural area to the cities.
    Then, too, there is something unrelated. Much of Mexico and much of the South are Shame/Honor culture, or, as Jane Jacobs describes them, Guardian Syndrome. Most of America is Guilt/Conscience, Bourgeois, or, per Ms. Jacobs, Commercial Syndrome. Except for the few at the top of the heap, politicians and drug dealers. most people in Shame/Guardian  subculture/Syndrome are poor. No amount of money given them will change their  economic reality, because wealth is gained by bourgeois people, and lost by Guardians.  I offer as an example, the first wave of Cuban refugees, coming here with the clothes on their backs, if that much, and raising future US Senators, like our own Mr. Cruz. The Marielistas in 1980 were seen by other Cubans as the dregs. Every one of them that I saw in the ER for the next two years had one or another STD. They’d spent two decades under Communism, and it had had  its unfortunate effect.
    [FTL is Failure to Launch.]

  • Mike Devx

    Gringo you sain in #11: In my years as a substitute teacher, of the three groups, 1)poor blacks, 2) poor Hispanics of parents born here, 3) poor Hispanics of parents born south of the border, I much preferred poor Hispanics of parents born south of the border.
    I agree. I was a math teacher on the Texas border for seven years back in the late 80s.  The migrant workers were usually from across the border (illegal).  There were usually three or four in each class, and they showed up a month or two months late in the school year, and left a month or two early.  They were *incredibly* hard workers within the classroom and very polite and respectful, not just to the teachers, but everyone.  I never had a problem with a single one of those students.  
    On the other hand, there were too many kids within the class – I won’t call them students – showed up and occupied a seat solely because they were legally required to do so or their parents would be in serious trouble.  They had no interest in learning anything.  Or at least I can say that I was never able to find a way to reach them.  They had simply accepted that they were required to occupy a seat in six different rooms from 9 am to 4 pm, and they wouldn’t give an inch beyond that.  Somehow they passed enough of their classes to make it into the high school, and I don’t know how.  Social promotion?  At a certain age after which they could drop out they disappeared.

  • March Hare

    Interesting discussion!  I’m reminded of the scene in Stand and Deliver where Jaime Escalante notices one of his brightest students is missing and finds her at her parents’ restaurant.  Papa tells Mr. Escalante that his daughter is needed here, to help Mama and the family, not wasting her time studying Calculus.  The scene makes sense now.
    The Hispanic families I know who have academically successful children tend to blend in with the community.  Their kids are in Scouts, play soccer with the local youth league (instead of the Hispanic league), go to the English Mass.  These couples tend to be either ethnically mixed or generationally mixed, with only one parent who grew up in Latin America.  The other parent is native-born.   I wonder if that makes a difference?

  • Ymarsakar

    There’s no particular reason why they can’t adopt a dual working, dual learning environment. Other than obsolete laws about industrial age working kids.
    Then again, there’s no particular reason why they needed to eliminate shop or woodworking classes from high school and junior high either.
    I suppose when one is creating an army of cannonfodder zealots and fanatics for a Leftist Utopia, it takes a lot of work, a lot of time, and a lot of academic indoctrination.
    They can’t be spared to “work” outside the class room.